Category Archives: GGGB 3223 Learner Diversity & Differentiated Teaching


salam lagi

Today is our presentation day! The last day of our class for this course GGGB 3223 Learner Diversity & Differentiated Learning. Everybody seems ready for presenting the KIT. But for this time around, we combine our tutorial group with the other tutorial group. So, there will be 8 groups of presentation. I was wondering if we can finish this class in just 2 hours time. Naah, it’s ok. Let’s proceed to the presentation. Everybody showed a good effort and had done their best! Basically, this is our tutorial group task:

GROUP 1: Yasmin, Adira, Jannah, Nora

* Dyslexia
* Learning Style

GROUP 2: Farah, Niesa, Nadia, Imran

* Autism
* Multiple Intelligences

GROUP 3: Ana, Veni, Prasna, Aie

* Gender/Culture/Ethnicity/Language
* Personality

GROUP 4: Kak Ana, Kak Ika, Sheqin, Zarina

* Youth-at-Risk
* Previous educational experiences & SES

YES! My group consists of Kak Ana, Kak Ika and also Zarina. Our topic is about Youth-at-Risk and how it relates to previous educational experiences & SES (socioeconomic status). IT IS A REALLY HARD TOPIC actually. It gave all of us a headache before we could really understand it. In this KIT, we got slide presentation, a poster and also a video.






That’s it! Sorry because I can’t share the video here. It is a nice video and my friends also like it! Thank you y’allss! 🙂 hehe



salam 2

Hello! Do you have a nice day today? I hope so. 🙂 Before I share what we had learnt in GGGB 3223 Learner Diversity & Differentiated Learning, I am glad to share one educational story that I’d read. I hope it helps you. The title is ‘LET GO OF YOUR STRESSES’.

A psychologist walked around a room while teaching stress management to an audience. As she raised a glass of water, everyone expected they’d be asked the “half empty or half full” question. Instead, with a smile on her face, she inquired: ”How heavy is this glass of water?”

Answers called out ranged from 8 oz. to 20 oz.

She replied, “The absolute weight doesn’t matter. It depends on how long I hold it. If I hold it for a minute, it’s not a problem. If I hold it for an hour, I’ll have an ache in my arm. If I hold it for a day, my arm will feel numb and paralyzed. In each case, the weight of the glass doesn’t change, but the longer I hold it, the heavier it becomes.”

She continued, “The stresses and worries in life are like that glass of water. Think about them for a while and nothing happens. Think about them a bit longer and they begin to hurt. And if you think about them all day long, you will feel paralyzed – incapable of doing anything.”

It’s important to remember to let go of your stresses. As early in the evening as you can, put all your burdens down. Don’t carry them through the evening and into the night. Remember to put the glass down!

Source :

All right! Move on! In this post, I will share with you about 1Malaysia concept (YES, I am a MALAYSIAN and I’m proud to be so) and also about cooperative learning. AHHA! Don’t get confused. Cooperative learning, NOT collaborative learning. What’s the difference? I’ll explain later on. Basically, this is the last presentation of our task. After this, we are going to do a presentation (KIT presentation) which is a group work. It will include a slide presentation (assigned topic), a poster and also a video with digital message. But for now, put aside the KIT. Here is the last task and the presenters (including me). 😀

Ayie & Prasna:

a) Explain five strategies to achieve the goals of 1Malaysia.
b) Describe five obstacles which may prevent the achievement of these goals.


a) Describe cooperative learning.
b) Choose one model of cooperative learning and show how to implement the model.


Ayie did good when explaining on what is 1Malaysia to the class before starts his presentation. Upon ascending to Malaysia’s highest public office on April 2009, the Prime Minister of Malaysia, YAB Dato’ Sri Najib Tun Razak has made waves to all corners of the nation with the introduction of 1Malaysia concept. The concept evolves around a culture of excellence, perseverance, acceptance, education, integrity, meritocracy, humility and loyalty. It also encompasses NKRAs on six major issues. Since independent, national unity has been made top priority – unity in education, culture, socio-economy, political, regional, etc. 1Malaysia seeks to improve the relations of all Malaysians, regardless of racial, religious or cultural backgrounds. There are certain major concerns that need to be addressed in order to seriously engage in 1Malaysia concept. 1Malaysia concept caters the needs of all sectors of the plural society and to ensure equal distribution of wealth between racial groups, between states and federal.

 “1Malaysia’s goal is to preserve and enhance this unity in diversity which has always been our strength and remains our best hope for the future. I hope this Website will initiate an open and vital dialogue exploring our Malaysian identity, purpose, and direction. I encourage each of you to join me in defining our Malaysia and the role we must play in its future. Each of us — despite our differences — shares a desire for a better tomorrow. Each of us wants opportunity, Respect, friendship, and understanding.”Dato’ Seri Najib Tun Razak


Prasna had discussed with us such a really educational information. She explained about five obstacles which may prevent the achievement of of 1Malaysia concept. They are school system, religious sentiments, language, goal and speciality. Thanks Praz for sharing this with us! It is really an eye-opener to me and I believe to others as well (I mean my friends. Hope it includes you). 🙂

1. School system

– ethnically & linguistically polarized primary school system (Chinese & Tamil )

– separated school system at primary level

– 90% (Chinese)/ 50% (Indian)  – no opportunity to interact with Malays in the same age category


2. Religious sentiments

– ethno-centric (superior compared to other community) – weird, inferior and immoral

–  differences measured by :customs, family background, attitude,  attire

– unhelpful religious sentiment which undermines the practices and institutions of other religions

3. Language

– mother tongue  ( tamil / chinese )

–  very strong

– cannot  accept that Bahasa  Melayu as official  language

– it shows the differences between the races

– do not want to give up or want to learn and apply other languages

4. Goal

– not common and shared goal

– not ethnically integrated

– peace , living in harmony

– full & fair partnership

5. Speciality

– special positions of Malay/ Bumiputera (Constitution)

– Article Rational 153  privileges  : position in public service, scholarship, education, business, special facilities

– Malay reserve land so that the reserve land is protected from the non-Malay.


I am the last presenter of the day and also for this task! OK. Great. My task is about cooperative learning and in the end, I have to choose the most suitable cooperative learning model and show how to implement it.




In the end of our presentation, Ummi praised all of us for our hard work and she loves all of our presentations. Ummi also had asked me to add extra info about cooperative learning model and share it with others. Thank you Ummi for your support! Last but not least, Ummi reminded us to start working on our KIT presentation and do our best! In sha Allah Ummi! We will! 🙂










Good day! How are you doing? Hurmm.. I want to start this post by sharing the movie that I had watched! I LOVE THIS MOVIE! No, no! This movie is not part of my assignment. 🙂 I just watched it because someone told me that the movie is good. It is really good! The title is ‘The Odd Life of Timothy Green’. It’s nice if you were already watching it. You can share your opinion here. But, for those who is not yet watch it, here is the story. BUT, of course it will be so much exciting if you watch it yourself!


The film is told from the perspective of Cindy (Jennifer Garner) and Jim Green (Joel Edgerton), as they explain their experience with Timothy (CJ Adams) in an effort to persuade an adoption agency to allow the couple to adopt a child.

Cindy, who works in the town’s local museum, and Jim, who is employed at the town’s historic pencil factory, resides in the drought-stricken town of Stanleyville, North Carolina. The Greens are informed by doctors that they are unable to conceive. Distraught by the news, Jim convinces Cindy to dream up their ideal child and write the child’s characteristics and life events on slips of notepad paper.

The couple places the notes inside a box and buries it in the backyard garden. After a thunderstorm, which seemingly affects only their property, a ten-year-old arrives at their home claiming the Greens as his parents. After finding the box they buried smashed to pieces around a large hole in the ground where they originally buried it, and finding the boy inside their house, covered in mud, they realize that the boy, named Timothy, is actually a culmination of all their wishes of what their child would be. The Greens also discover that Timothy has a startling feature: he has leaves growing on his legs.

The next day, at a family picnic, Timothy is introduced to members of his family: Brenda Best (Rosemarie DeWitt), Cindy’s pompous sister; James Green Sr. (David Morse), Jim’s estranged father; and Mel (Lois Smith) and Bub (M. Emmet Walsh), Cindy’s paternal aunt and uncle. The parents take Timothy to their friend and town botanist, Reggie (Lin-Manuel Miranda), where they learn that Timothy’s leaves cannot be removed.

Timothy begins to attend school, where he meets Joni Jerome (Odeya Rush), a girl he meets during a bullying incident, with whom he begins a friendly relationship. Meanwhile, the town’s pencil factory, the largest employer in Stanleyville, begins laying off its employees. Timothy convinces Cindy and Jim to design a prototype for a new pencil in an effort to keep the pencil-producing business viable.

Unbeknownst to the parents, one of Timothy’s leaves falls off each time he fulfills one of the qualities listed on the original slips of paper. Timothy eventually reveals to Cindy and Jim that his time of existence is short and that he will eventually disappear.


The Greens’ meeting with the adoption counselor concludes with Cindy presenting a letter that Timothy left them before leaving. In the letter, he explains to them what he did with each of his leaves that fell off, with a montage sequence showing each person whose life Timothy touched. After an unspecified amount of time, the adoption counselor is shown pulling up to the Greens’ house in a car with the little girl who is to become the Greens’ daughter.

Source :

I don’t know where you can download it, but I’m sure you’ll find the way. Hehe.

For this time, like the title of this post, I will share with you about youth disabilities, multi-disciplinary team and also about characteristics of analytical and global learners. The presenters are as follows :

Imran & Ana :

a) What are five characteristics of youth with disabilities?

b) How can teachers teach more effectively by taking into account such characteristics?

Niesa :

a) List five members in the multi-disciplinary team. Describe their respective roles.

Kak Ika & Zarina :

a) Compare the characteristics of  analytical and global learners.

b) How can teacher strategize to accommodate these learners?


Imran and Ana started the presentation by introducing themselves (though all of us already know them). Yaa, it is what we call a TRADITIONAL way of attracting audience attention. Ana and Imran had shared with us about 5 characteristics of youth disabilities which are dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, dysphasia/aphasia and also dyspraxia and how to teach the student which has the disabilities. Never heard of them?? Nahhh.. It’s ok. I’ll share with you.

1. DYSLEXIA (difficulty reading)

– problems reading, writing, spelling, speaking


Common signs: reads painfully slow, difficulty with basic letter sounds, has trouble decoding, the order of letters becomes mixed up, cannot recall known words

How to teach: utilize a multi-sensory approach to teaching, use time wisely, provide handouts, model organizational structures, utilize other resources

2. DYSGRAPHIA (difficulty with writing)

– problems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideas


Common signs: awkward pencil grip, illegible handwriting, frustration with writing thoughts on paper, can talk about an idea but cannot write it down on paper

How to teach: allow for accommodations, modify expectations or task to avoid problem areas, provide remediation to improve the student’s handwriting skills

3. DYSCALCULIA (difficulty with math)

– problems doing math problems, understanding time, using money


Common signs: difficulty recalling number sequences, may mistake numbers that look similar in shape (3 & 8), cannot retain patterns when adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, difficulty with handling money or estimating costs

How to teach: start with a solid foundation of number recognition and operations, use real-life situation for math concepts, use music and games to help with memorization and of facts and tables, handheld calculators help the student to be sure they see the numbers in the correct order and can be used for a quick check for correctness

4. DYSPHASIA/APHASIA (difficulty with language)

– problems understanding spoken language, poor reading


Common signs: difficulty expressing thoughts verbally, poor reading comprehension, frustrated when speaking, have trouble labeling objects

How to teach: use picture cards, specific programs for therapy, online programs

5. DYSPRAXIA (difficulty with fine motor skills)

– problems with hand-eye coordination, balance, manual dexterity


Common signs: problems with physical abilities – require hand-eye coordination, like holding a pencil or buttoning a shirt

How to teach: give short, precise instructions and engage in as much eye, does activities that he recognizes, write letters on a chalkboard and ask him to copy letters and if possible say the letter at the same time.


Next presenter is Niesa. She also had shared an interesting things with us. It is about multi-disciplinary team and their roles. First and foremost, we need to know the DEFINITION of multi-disciplinary team. According to :

Multidisciplinary teams are groups of professionals from diverse disciplines who come together to provide comprehensive assessment and consultation in abuse cases. While their primary purpose is typically to help team members resolve difficult cases, teams may fulfill a variety of additional functions. They can promote coordination between agencies; provide a “checks and balances” mechanism to ensure that the interests and rights of all concerned parties are addressed; and identify service gaps and breakdowns in coordination or communication between agencies or individuals. They also enhance the professional skills and knowledge of individual team members by providing a forum for learning more about the strategies, resources, and approaches used by various disciplines.


Niesa had chosen general educator, special educator, principal, parents and also student as the members of multi-disciplinary team. Other disciplinary members are therapists, guidance counselors, administrators other than principal, motivator and paraprofessionals. These are the roles of the members of multi-disciplinary team that Niesa had explained.

1. General educator

– Understand the special educators may be responsible for a large group of students and have a limited amount of time for each student.

– Sharing with other consultants for determining how goals and object can be reinforced during the course of general classroom activities.

2. Special educator

– Recognize suitable techniques to be used towards students especially students with special needs.

– Respond  to the need of many students rapidly.

– Recognize the teaching techniques  that may be success in special education class but not in a normal classroom.

3. Principal

– Monitor student’s movements in the schools especially in the classroom.

– Always update information with the classroom teacher about their performance.

– Inform parents with the current performance of the students.

4. Parents

– Provide information about the students’ current performance.

– Don’t leave their children’s education in the hand of experts.

5. Student

– Responsible for their own educational outcomes.

– Although for disabilities students, they should think about their responsibility. Don’t let others be responsible for everything.


Last presenters of the day were Kak Ika and also Zarina. Their presentation really catches my eyes! Lots of info that we had learnt and understand. Their task is on the two types of learning styles which are ANALYTICAL LEARNER and GLOBAL LEARNER. So, what are they? Ok. Be patient! Before that, we have to know that learning style actually explains how the individual interacts with new information and no person is bound by one learning style only. Even though individuals find themselves in both categories, they gravitate toward just one learning style.


  • preferring to study alone for long periods without interruption
  • tend to work on one task to completion
  • focuses on the parts that make up the big picture
  • likely to respond to a problem with logic first, instead of emotion,  solve problem systematically and logically.


  • may work better in groups than alone
  • prefer to work on multiple tasks at once
  • sees the big picture or overall view
  • likely to respond to a problem with emotion first, instead of logic

Understanding the key differences in student learning styles leads to better learning support. Numerous assessment tests allow individuals to determine their own learning styles and help parents and teachers find ways to encourage learning. Teachers can develop lesson plans that accommodate both styles, such as incorporating narratives and group work into lesson plans to accommodate global learners. So, here are the strategies that teachers can use to accommodate them.


  • Provide a traditional classroom setting
  • Shows and organize the sequences of information
  • Leads to the larger concept of understanding
  • Provide an activity that follows sequentially, process, list, timeline, and charts
  • Example: bring back pieces or parts of the body altogether and explain their functions


  • Provide a flexible learning environment
  • Explain concept first then the details
  • Give them chances to do some group work
  • Give them multiple task at once
  • Plays background music
  • Gives open ended questions.
  • Relates to life information


Ok. That’s all for today. And Ummi Rosseni, thanks for the sweet ‘kek pisang’! SEDAP! Hehe. 😀

See you in the next post (which I will be one of the presenter)! Bye! Assalamualaikum w.b.t.



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Hi! OMG! I felt like I was not writing in such a long time. It’s good to have something to share at the end. NO! Actually, I should write this post long time ago but I WAS SO BUSY AND STILL BUSY UP UNTIL NOW! Ouhh.. Yeah, I can’t make it as an excuse. It is my bad. 😦

All right. For this time around, I will share on what my classmates had shared with me in our class (GGGB 3223 Learner Diversity & Differentiated Teaching). Thanks to Kak Ana, Veni, Nora, Jannah and Farah Yusoff for the info! It really help us! Basically, these are their task:

Kak Ana & Veni : Describe the six phases inclusion and what are the provision of public law 99-457.

Nora & Jannah :

a) Describe learner diversity in Malaysia.

b) How can education for all can be achieved?

Farah Yusoff : Describe five feature behaviors towards low achievers mentioned by Kauffman.


For Kak Ana and Veni’s presentation, we can know that there is actually a provision of public law 99-457 which is an ‘Education Of The Handicapped Act Amendments Of 1986’. Not only that, actually there are numerous Sections of PL 94-147. The purpose for this is to provide early intervention services for all eligible children as defined by legislation

In the provisions :

– the rights and protections of PL 94-142 were extended to child with disabilities ages 3 to 5 years in the school year 1990-1991

– to support this, the preschool incentive grant program was revised (Section 619) to reflect the authorization of a dramatic increase in the federal fiscal contribution to the age group

– a new state grant program for disabled infants and toddlers were established (birth through 2)


Last but not least, there are some legal implications for the action which are:

1. With the concurrence of the family, a statement of the family’s strengths needs related to enhancing the development of the child.

2. A statement of the major outcomes expected achieved for the child and family. The criteria, procedures, and timelines used to determine the degree to which a progress is made and so on.

3. Other services and the steps that will be undertaken to secure those services.

4. The projected dates for initiation of the services and the anticipated duration.

I totally understand! They are all facts and it is a little bit bored. But, I hope it gives us knowledge and can be an eye opener for those who did not know about this before (including me).


Next presentation is presented from both charming ladies, Nora and Jannah. Hurmm… They are the ‘tulang belakang’ for Za’ba Residential College. EH. I shouldn’t mention that kan? OK then. Move on. 🙂 The topic is good which is about learner diversity in Malaysia. Hurm. What do you know about learner  diversity? It is actually referred to all inclusive, collective mixtures of human differences and similarities along a given dimension. According to Nora’s presentation, the level of the teacher’s perspective towards school diversity is still at moderate level. She also mentioned that teacher takes things lightly in the educational content. So, her suggestion to Ministry of Education and school is they have to execute more awareness programs besides improve facilities for teachers and students.


Jannah answer the second question which is how can education for all can be achieved? According to her, both government and society should play their role so that education for all is not just a saying. HOW?

Government :

– primary education is compulsory for all the children

– financial help for those needed

– co-curriculum and curriculum syllabus

– special schools for special children

Society :

– self-experience

– self-awareness about the importance of education for the future


The last presenter of the day is Farah Yusoff. She has shared with us about five feature behaviors towards low achievers  mentioned by Kauffman. OK. The first question that SHOULD be playing in your mind now is, WHO is Kauffman? Let me share this with you.

James M. Kauffman is an American who has made significant contributions to the field of education specifically in special education. He has authored or co-authored several books and many journal articles in the fields of special education, education reform, child psychology, and child development and has served in various editorial capacities. The topics he has written about include behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, mental retardation, instructional and behavior management techniques in the classroom, education reform, and ethical and policy issues. He has also made presentations in multiple countries. He currently is Professor Emeritus of Education at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, where he became a faculty member in 1970. He has had an active career in education since the 1960s.

Source :


From Farah’s explanation, the five feature behaviors towards low achievers that was mentioned by Kauffman are :

1. Consistent in responding children’s behaviors

– The students should know the consequences of appropriate behavior and misbehavior. We should give clear directions and hold firm to our expectations to them besides of being consistent in giving rewards or punishments. Do not mix it all!

2. Providing instruction that is useful to children

– We should make sure that we have chosen the important things to teach them. Do point out the value of what they are learning and try to find a way to make the material that we used become interesting and worth for them.

3. Rewarding the right behavior

– As a teacher, do not make any mistake of praising them when they are behaving misbehave. The teacher also cannot make any physical contact with them in attempts to offer loving correction. Give attention primarily only when they are behaving appropriately.

4. The demands appropriate for the children’s abilities

– Do not give too high or too low expectations towards the children. Our expectation must fit each child’s ability level. So, make sure that you really know your child!

5. Try a different approach/ seek for help

– Don’t ever ‘going it alone’. We should try to use a different approach and maybe it can solve the problem because an attitude of openness and willingness to look outside oneself are essential for success sometimes.

Quite a lot of info right? AHHA. But, it’s ok. Hope each of us get something from this post. Thanks to all the presenters! And YES, thanks a lot to our beloved UMMI ROSSENI for the chance of having a great lecturer as you! We love you!

That’s all. The next post will be on other topics which is also will give a bunch of benefit! Keep in touch. 🙂



Hi! How are you? Is everything going well..? Naahhh.. Whatever happens, for sure it is for a reason. It’s okay.


For this time, our reflection is based from our tutorial class presentations from my classmates. We are assigned with certain topics which Ummi had chosen for all of us. The presenters for week 8 are Adira, Kak Nadia & Yasmin. They are all seeming confident and ready to present their task though we had problem in booking the computer lab. Oh yeah, the master students said that they were going to have test in that lab according to their lecturer. Not to be rude, but perhaps each of us should learn once again how to respect others. Our lecturer was already there, still, they ignore her like she was nothing. That’ make me wonder if there is a difference between a degree lecturer and a master lecturer. Thought that we need to respect people all the same regardless their position etc. But never mind, I can’t expect others to be like what I want them to be. The class session went on so well and happening! Thank Goodness! They are all good! Thank you korangggg…!

The first presenter is Adira, presenting her task entitle ‘What are the components of SAALE MODEL? Discuss how teachers can use the model’. This cute little Adira enchants us with her explanation about the topic until Ummi herself praises our sweet little Adira. From her explanation, we understood that SAALE MODEL is a Systematic Approach for Adapting the Learning Environment. The aim of this model is to allow the disable students to get the same curriculum which means giving an extra opportunity and access to each of the students. There are 3 components of SAALE MODEL including;
First : Adapted Environment (socio-emotional environment, behavioral environment, physical environment). The teacher needs to alert of the class situation and make changes if any problem persist.
Second : Adapted Instructional Environment : Planning & Teaching (lesson plans, techniques, format or content, media). In this situation, the teacher can make changes whenever needed.
Third: Adapted Evaluation (student evaluation, grading). The teacher needs to do a holistic evaluation which is done from time to time.

The second presenter is Kak Nadia. She is presenting on a topic ‘AUTISM’. There is much information that she gave us. While presenting, she told us about her experience with one little kid who has autism. It is entertaining. Thank you Kak Nadia. 🙂 She explained that the major characteristic of Autism person is they have difficulty in communication (impaired communication- verbal and non-verbal), problems with social interactions (understanding others and abnormal social play), have unusual behavior (repetitive movement and sensitive to light, sound etc.) and difficulty in learning (have cognitive problems- attention, organization, sequencing). Kak Nadia also had explained about how to teach students with Autism.

  • Instructional approaches
  • Strategies for classroom management
  • Strategies for communication development
  • Strategies for teaching social skills
  • Teaching functional skills

The last presenter of the day is Yasmin, my very very caring ‘jiran’. Hehe. Yes. We stay at the same college and at the same floor. Yasmin’s task is about ‘Down Syndrome Children, how teachers can accommodate in teaching and learning session?’. According to Yasmin explanation, down syndrome occurs when there is a presence of chromosome 21.  They have different IQ value (35-50) compared to a normal person (100) and have delays in cognitive ability and physical growth. Usually, down syndrome child can be recognized by the same features they have, including small head, epicanthal folds, flat midface, smooth philtrum, underdeveloped jaw, thin upper lip, short nose, small eye openings and low nasal bridge. This kind of children can be sent to regular school or to specialized educational facilities, depends to their parents. A teacher should know and learn about Down Syndrome child to make it easy to accommodate them. Here are the teacher’s role in dealing with Down Syndrome child;

  • Change the perception
  • Involve the students – let them feel motivated
  • Have talk with child’s parents
  • Implement simpler task
  • Demonstrate instead of giving instruction
  • Be clear about what you want them to do
  • Give feedbacks to them


Ummi said that she satisfied with all the presenters and their presentation. All of us felt the same. Thanks once again  kooranngg (Adira, Kak Nadia, Yasmin) for the useful info!